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Some Rules On Writing

Started by Tony Budak, June 12, 2007, 05:26:33 pm

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Tony Budak

June 12, 2007, 05:26:33 pm Last Edit: April 14, 2013, 04:46:49 pm by Tony Budak
Publisher Note: the following extracted from, Index to Kim Scipes' Web Pages

Writing Rules
--Developed by Robert H. Zieger, Professor of Labor History,  University of Florida.  Reprinted by permission.
Extracted from Professor Zieger's Spring 2007 syllabus for his course, History  of US Labor
How to write

1. The first paragraph of a historical paper, be it a research paper, short  synopsis, or book review, should contain the author's central thesis or  conclusions. The author must mention all important actors, as well as inclusive  dates of coverage and basic concepts or historical developments in the first  paragraph.

2. Use vigorous, direct language.  Short sentences work.  Employ concrete,  precise nouns and active verbs, being careful, for example, to find active  substitutes for forms of the verb "to be" and "to go."  Inexperienced writers  often erroneously think that convoluted language, long sentences, and  pretentious diction impress teachers.

3.  Use the active, not the passive voice, in your prose.  The active voice  places the subject before the action.  Active voice:  On opening day, Barry  Bonds blasted his 71st home run.  Passive voice:  His 71st home run was blasted  by Barry Bonds on opening day.  If you are uncertain on this important point,  review http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/grammar/g_actpass.html

4. Avoid all first-person or surrogate references.  By "surrogate" I mean such  terms as one, we, the current writer.

5. Avoid discussion of method, intentions, and structure. There is no need to  intrude explicit statements of authorial intention ("In the following pages, I  am going to argue that. . . ."-just state the argument) or to deliver bulletins  about the paper's structure ("This paper is divided into three sections. . .  ."-just state your three central arguments or observations in a well-crafted  opening paragraph).  I agree with writer Samuel Hynes that "the less obtrusive  the story-teller is, the better for the story, and . . . when an assertive  narrating personality shoulders his [or her] way between the reader and the  subject, biography [and history] suffer. . . ."

6. Inclusion of frequent chronological references and their placement at the  beginnings of sentences, paragraphs, phrases, and so forth contributes  significantly to more accessible and dynamic prose.

7. It is easy to fall into stuffy, pompous, trite rhetorical patterns. Double  negatives, for example, often only lend inflated importance to commonplace  observations. The gratuitous imputation of erroneous views to the reader is  another bad habit (as in: "It would be unfair to conclude that Nixon was a  homosexual. . ."; or "It would be a gross overstatement to say that the South  won the Civil War. . . ."  In both cases, the reader is being warned against  making an error that the author is actually suggesting).

8. Don't use lengthy block quotes. Always paraphrase and integrate into your own  prose.  Confine quoted words to short, distinctive selections, subordinating  quoted material to your own purposes and your own language.

9. There is much dismissive talk these days about so-called "political  correctness."  It is important for serious people to weigh carefully their  language when referring to ethnicity, race, gender, and other politically  charged subjects.  Many complaints about the need to be "politically correct"  reflect a desire on the part of politically or culturally dominant groups or  interests to have license in the language they use to characterize or refer to  minority, subordinated, or vulnerable groups.  Language is a powerful tool.  Use  it judiciously, carefully, and with due respect for your fellow human beings.   No one ever accused Adolph Hitler of being "politically correct."

         Common errors and bad habits

1. Run-on sentences. When in doubt, start a new sentence.  Short sentences work.

2. Misplaced modifiers. ("Jumping out of bed, my shoulder hurt"; "Based on this  evidence, Prof. Jones argues. . . ").

3. Quotations and punctuation marks. Remember these lifetime rules:  In  American English--

  • Commas and periods always go inside quotation marks   

  • Colons and semi-colons always go outside quotation marks   

  • Question marks and exclamation points (which latter you have no need for  in this paper) depend on the context.

4. Distinguish between possessives, which take the apostrophe, and plurals,  which don't. There are specific rules for plural possessives (e.g., for nouns  ending in s, add apostrophe s to make the possessive; but for pluralized nouns  otherwise not ending in s, just add the apostrophe). Examples: Margaritas are  made with tequila (correct).  Margaritas' [or Margarita's] are made with lime  juice (incorrect).  The Margaritas' intoxicatory properties turned me into a  zombie (correct).

5. Watch out for its and it's.  Its is the possessive, as in "I liked the house  because of its roominess."  It's is the contraction for it is, as in "It's going  to rain today."

6. Adjectives and adverbs--get rid of as many as possible.  In general, the  higher the proportion of verbs in your writing, the more vigorous and effective  it will be.  Especially, strike the words "very" and "interesting" from your  written vocabulary.

7. Comparisons and parallels.  Make sure that when you make or draw them, the  terms are consistent with each other.  ("In regard to onions, Harding's smelled  stronger than Coolidge" should be stronger than "those of Coolidge" or  "Coolidge's.")

8. Be a "which" hunter, substituting "that" wherever possible.

9. When dealing with human beings, "who" is the correct pronoun; "that" is never  acceptable (as in: I met a man who [not that] once tended Sir Douglas Haig's  horse).

10. In quotations, always make clear the identity of the person whom you quote.   Every quote needs a "signature phrase," indicating the identity and/or standing  of the person being quoted.

Return to Index

Return to Model Book Review
With Respect and Cheers,
Tony Budak, Site Owner and Webmaster

Please do not email or PM me for CLNews technical  support. Instead Post Questions and Concerns Here

Tony Budak

October 22, 2007, 08:24:53 am #1 Last Edit: April 14, 2013, 03:52:52 am by Tony Budak

- Helpful Information for Students -
Essay Writing:
Essay Format, Writing Skills, and Sample Papers

General Rules for Writing an Essay

1. Essays should consist of a minimum of 5 to 7 paragraphs:
1 introduction with thesis statement
3 to 5 text paragraphs
1 conclusion / summary

2. Paragraphs must be well-developed with strong topic and supporting sentences. Make sure to use complete sentences, good grammar, and correct spelling.

Steps for Writing an Effective Essay[/b]

I. Question Analysis
Be sure you understand exactly what the question is asking. Without a clear understanding of the questions you cannot write an adequate answer.
Be sure you understand key terms within the topic such as assess, explain, compare describe, etc.
Make sure you identify any subdivisions within the main topic question and address each of them in your essay.

II. Developing the Thesis
The thesis statementis the position you will take on the subject of the essay.
Your thesis should be stated in the introduction to your essay. Therefore, after reading your introduction, the reader should know both the subject of the essay and your position on the question.

III. Writing the Introduction
Introduce the general subject of the essay and paraphrase the topic question.
Express your thesis as an affirmative statement (take a positive position).
Indicate the major points that will be discussed in text of your essay.

IV. Writing the Text of the Essay
Each paragraph must have a strong topic sentence clearly identifying the point under consideration.
Text paragraphs must use factual information to support your thesis.
All information should be organized in logical sequence.
Each subdivision of the topic should be considered in a separate paragraph.

V. Writing the Conclusion
The conclusion or summary should bring the reader back to your thesis and the topic question, bringing the essay to a clear and definite end.
Do not introduce new information.

Essay Writing Skills

1. Spelling. I assume that if you are unsure about a word's spelling on take-home essays, you can look it up in the dictionary. Remember - spell check is your friend.

2. Capitalization. Historical eras are capitalized e.g. the Middle Ages, Renaissance, Europe, the Age of Enlightenment. If you have questions about capitalization, look up the word in Palmer, noting if he capitalizes the word or phrase.

3. Always use past tense. The only exception to this is when you are using a person's quote; if his/her quote is in present tense, obviously you accurately record it as stated. But notice how this works: The Austrian Prime Minister Metternich stated, "When France sneezes, Europe catches a cold."

4. Underline books, place artistic and musical works in quotation.

5. Avoid the verb "To Be" e.g. was, were. This verb is passive, bringing the flow of your essay to a halt. One technique in avoiding this problem is to condense your writing when possible. For example, "Shakespeare was a playwright. In his play, Romeo and Juliet, he stated..." Change to this, "Shakespeare, in his play, Romeo and Juliet, stated..."

6. Factual Density. In your essay body paragraphs, pack your writing with facts (e.g. names, dates, places, artistic works, quotes, etc.). To cite a good example, look at Palmer's paragraph on Florence on page 54 of your text.

7. Underline esoteric foreign words (words not frequently used in our language) e.g. sfumato, condotierri, Zurrisenheit, Ubermensch, fin de siecle, etc.

8. Never refer to today, never, never, NEVER.

9. Do NOT use contractions e.g. Don't, wasn't, can't, didn't, etc.

10. Avoid making absolute statements e.g. "The Renaissance totally transformed European culture." "Lenin and the Bolsheviks completely abolished the czarist traditions." Such comments are not accurate, hence find close synonyms, words such as "significantly, decisively, irrevocably," etc.

11. Avoid abstract nouns e.g. mankind, the world, man, humanity. Find more concrete nouns. Instead of constantly writing Renaissance man, be more specific, such as "Renaissance culture, Italian culture, Renaissance painters, artists, sculptors, princes, despots, etc. Let the context of the sentence shape the specific noun to be used.

12. Avoid making evaluation comments e.g. "tremendous, beautiful, wonderful," etc. Do not state, "The Renaissance witnessed the most wonderful achievements in..." Let the reader make up his / her own mind.

13. Avoid poetic phrases e.g. "A bright new dawn burst upon the earth spreading golden rays of sunlight to nurture the gardens of man's greatest ambition..." (I took this quote from an actual student's essay ) Historians are boring people, they pretend they are "Scientific" by writing in a flat, social science style. This is different from what is asked of you in English writing assignments. Always be as clear and concise as you can. Work on condensing your style.

14. Avoid repeating the same word (noun or verb) in close succession, find synonyms.

15. When citing quotes, use the following rules:
No footnotes in an essay.
Use only short quotes Ð never more than one sentence.
Most of your quotes will come from contemporaries of the era discussed in that particular essay Ð e.g. Luther, Calvin, Erasmus in the Reformation essay; Galileo, Newton, Voltaire in the Scientific Revolution/Enlightenment essay.
When quoting a modern historian (e.g. Palmer) only cite those large, evaluative comments, those comments commonly found at the beginning and end of chapters.
Never start or finish your essay with a quote.

16. Introduction Paragraphs. Use the following rules:
No longer than 4-5 sentences, at the most.
Whenever possible, the first sentence should be dramatic, capturing the reader's attention.
The time span of the essay should be mentioned.
This paragraph should refer to the central themes/causes/subject of the essay, but only briefly.

Sample essay introduction: "On October 31, 1517, Martin Luther posted 95 Theses on the door of Wittenberg Cathedral, initiating a religious conflict which ultimately engulfed Europe for 150 years. Possibly Luther's cloistered training blinded him from recognizing the complex economic, social, and political forces at work which would transform and intensify his initial religious dispute into a revolution that irrevocably buried the Medieval world. The late Medieval Church must also take some of the blame, for its increased preoccupation with materialism and worldly power likewise blinded it to the spiritual needs of a troubled era. In response, Protestantism aspired to respiritualize Catholicism by simplifying its structure, doctrine, and practices. Ironically, however, the religious conflicts both sides bred would finally produce a Europe less interested in either faith."

17. Conclusion Paragraphs. Use the following rules:
No longer than 5-6 sentences, at the most.
It should summarize without simply restating.
Never finish with a last sentence quote. Finish with your own words, not someone else's.
Tie the essay, when possible, to a wider historical context...e.g. forthcoming historical developments.

Sample essay conclusion: "The Peace of Westphalia brought the religious struggle, hence the Reformation to an end. Luther's reforms had been successful in creating an alternative form of Christian practice, and half of Europe followed his cause. But his protest had also bred political chaos, religious fanaticism, and socio-economic upheaval without precedent in early modern history. Exhausted by civil war and international conflict, Europe would increasingly search for a new principal of authority guided by a more secular outlook. Hence, ironically, Luther's program for re-spiritualizing a decadent Medieval Church brought neither ministers or priests into political dominance; instead kings and princes would shape Europe's future destiny, and do so by largely ignoring the faith."

(Note how this sample conclusion fits closely with the sample introduction; in a sense bring the essay full circle.)

18. Topic Sentences. Use the following rules:
Try to avoid, especially in these key sentences, the verb "to be."
Try to make a few dramatic.
Tie some of them to other topic sentences.

Sample topic sentences:

"The aforementioned economic, social, political, and intellectual forces produced a more secular cultural atmosphere where worldly values could be cultivated and celebrated."

"Such wealth demanded new forms of political organization."

"For the Italian humanists, however, the rediscovery of Greece and Rome provided the most self-conscious stimulus for the Renaissance."

"Even in view of these overwhelming odds, German democracy might have survived."

"In contrast to the Enlightenment admiration for classical Greco - Roman culture, Romantic artists found their spiritual homeland in the Medieval past."

"Romanticism died on the barricades of revolutionary Europe in 1848."

19. Rhythm. This is hard to teach/learn, but constantly think of your essay in terms of flow. That is, it should move along with a quick pace. This is insured by keeping in mind a couple of strategies:
Vary the length of sentences
Use active, dramatic verbs e.g. Not Luther said, but Luther argued, advocated, commented, demanded, etc.
Put nouns before verbs: "The Reformation was initiated by Luther." Change that to "Luther initiated the Reformation."
Avoid those passive verbs e.g. was created, was developed, was initiated, etc. Change such sentences around, putting the noun before the verb, and dropping the "was."

20. Especially on the first semester take-home essays, devote sufficient time to their writing. Simply to sit down the night before the essay is due and wait for the muses to start talking is not going to get the job done. That's why you have unit syllabi, to give you sufficient time to plan ahead.

21. Above all, keep in mind that writing, like any other skill, only develops over time with concerted, purposeful work. You must desire to improve, and give self-critical analysis to this task.

As Ernest Hemmingway once commented,
"There is no such thing as good writing,
only good rewriting..."

Sample Essays at Mr. Sedivy's Website

            | Habsburg and French Overstretch |
            | Germany: WWI and WWII Overstretch |
            | History of Hitler | Cost              of the Cold War |
            | Habsburg and French Overstretch |
            Check out the Site Contents              Page for More Sample Essays
With Respect and Cheers,
Tony Budak, Site Owner and Webmaster

Please do not email or PM me for CLNews technical  support. Instead Post Questions and Concerns Here



I know you meant well by posting these articles, but, I gotta tell ya, it's because of anal retentive, rigid, Prussian Army-style march-in-line stiff necked teaching techniques like those in the essays you forwarded that so many American kids HATE WRITING.

And yeah, I used a runon sentence...

And "bad" grammar...

And excentric punctiuation...

That's called "expressing yourself" - something the school system does NOT want the average student (or at least those students from working class backgrounds) to do.

Here's an idea on how to write (based on my own personal experience UNLEARNING what I was taught by the NYC Board of Education!!!)

1. Read - a lot. Read at least one newspaper every day, and at least one book a week.

2. Write - every week, try and write something - anything. Tell a story, in your own words, and don't worry about spelling, punctuation, or any other "rules" imposed by English teachers!!! Just tell your story - until you get really comfortable with the written word. Remember, real writers have folks called proofreaders and other folks called editors who fix all their petty technical mistakes, so they can concentrate on the real business of writing.

3. Learn the language - do what Malcolm X did, get a dictionary, and read it from cover to cover, slowly, until you have read every word. And then repeat, until you really know every word in that dictionary. Then get a Roget's Thesaurus, and familiarize yourself with that book the same way.

4. Be a Copycat - as you read, you will become fans of certain writers. Model your writing style on them - and no I do not mean plagarising them - do not use the same WORDS, but try and adapt the same STYLE to the story YOU want to tell.

There's more to it than that - but if you follow those 4 simple steps, you too can be an author.

Tony Budak

  Different types of research projects:
  Expository - Analytic -                        Argument

  Good essays generally combine the above elements and are not merely descriptive.
  What research writing is not:
  • A string of quotations.
  • A personal essay with no research basis.
  • Entirely theoretical with no research basis.
  • A paper which uses information which is not documented correctly,      i.e. plagiarised.
Choosing your topic:
  Thesis vs. topic

  Topic and Thesis:
  All good research writing has a clearly identifiable thesis.
  A topic provides you with something to talk about, a thesis makes a significant and specific statement about a subject.
  A topic therefore is general, whereas a thesis is specific.
  Thesis statement  
  This is the backbone of your essay.  You should be able to state your thesis precisely in 1 or 2 lines for any shorter essay.  TS should be clear from your introduction.  Should express an opinion or attitude toward the topic chosen.


  ·Should include your thesis statement and briefly mention the points you intend to cover.
  • Should catch the reader's attention.
  • Should briefly reiterate your argument or main points.
  • Do not introduce new issues in the final paragraph.
  • Do not make apologies for what you haven't done or simply state      what you have achieved.
  Make connections between paragraphs smoother by using suitable transition words.
  ·Title page--includes your name, the title of your paper, the course name, the lecturer's name, date of submission and word count
  ·Page number--pages should always be numbered
  ·Line spacing--1.5 or double spacing should be followed throughout
  ·Margins--Use reasonable margins, headers and footers, your work will be judged on the basis of what you  have written not the number of pages you have filled.
  ·Paragraphs--Clearly mark paragraph breaks by either indenting or leaving a line break.  Every paragraph should have a topic sentence and be appropriately developed.  Like the overall essay, paragraphs should consist of a beginning, some development and a conclusion or link to the next point you intend to make.  Paragraphs consist of a minimum of three sentences.
  Always proofread your work.  Do not trust computer spelling and grammar checks absolutely.



  If you use material from another source you must cite it correctly, if you do not you will be guilty of plagiarism.  Use of source material may involve direct quotation, paraphrasing or summary.  Do not read about your topic, use other's ideas and then claim you were 'inspired.'  Keep account of the material you have used to learn about your chosen topic, take accurate notes or make photocopies so that you will be able to cite correctly.  You will always need the following information about a source - a) author's name b) full title of text c) publisher, place of publication and year of publication d) whether you have taken the author's exact words or have paraphrased.

  ·Paraphrase, Summary, Direct Quotations - remember all these must be referenced.
  ·Use EITHER double OR single quotation marks for direct quotations. Do not use italics.
  ·Context - avoid dropping in cited material without giving a context.  Usually an introductory tag i.e Shakespeare states that "...." or According to .... is stylistically preferable to an abandoned quote or paraphrase.
  ·Short quotations of poetry - when quoting a brief extract from a poem in the text of a paragraph, indicate the line breaks by using a slash (/).
  ·Block quotations - if you quote more than three lines of a text it is customary to format as follows:
                          According to Frank Budgeon,
         In this case quotation marks are not used.

  The Modern Languages Association (MLA) provides one of the most accessible models of referencing. You should follow this precisely. The following information is taken from http://www.aresearchguide.com/8firstfo.html#1 and is readily available on the internet elsewhere.
  • Detailed Footnotes and Endnotes are needed      only for sources cited for the first time. When citing the same work      more than once, it is no longer fashionable to use ibid. or op      cit., current trend is to use short title or author's last name      instead (see  below, item 23).
  • When using in the text of your essay      the title of a book or the title of a text, a chapter or an article from a      book, same rules regarding the use of italics or quotation marks apply      as those for footnotes.
1. Book with one author or editor
 2. Book with two authors or editors
 3. Book with three or more authors or editors
 4. Book with no author or editor stated
 5. Book that has been translated
 6. Article in a collection by several authors, with an editor
 7. Article from an encyclopedia with no author stated
 8. Article from an encyclopedia with one author
 9. Article from a magazine, journal, or newspaper with no author stated
10. Article from a magazine, journal, or newspaper with one or more authors or editors
11. Pamphlet or brochure with no author stated
12. Book, product, or software review
13. Government document
14. Interview
15. Film or video recording
16. Audio recording
17. Television or radio
18. Computer software or CD-ROM
19. Internet
20. Reference to Shakespeare
21. Reference from the Bible, Catechism, or Sacred Texts
22. Citations for a single work throughout essay
23. Sources used more than once

  1. Book with one author or editor:
       1 Frank Feather, Canada's Best Careers  Guide 2000 (Los  Angeles: Warwick, 2000) 152-3.
  2. Book with two authors or editors:
  2 R.D. Hogg and Michael G. Mallin, Preparing Your Income Tax Returns: 2001 Edition for 2000 Returns (Toronto: CCH Canadian, 2001) 969.
  2 Andrew Cohen and J.L. Granatstein, eds. Trudeau's Shadow: The Life and Legacy of Pierre Elliott Trudeau (Toronto: Random, 1998) 391.
  3. Book with three or more authors or editors:
  3 Jack Canfield, et al., Chicken Soup for the Kid's Soul:101 Stories of Courage, Hope and Laughter (Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications, 1998) 68.
       3 Mans O. Larsson, et al., eds. Let's Go: Germany 1998 (New York: St. Martin's, 1998) 96-98.
  4. Book with no author or editor stated:
       4 The 1990 Charlton Coin Guide, 29th ed. (Toronto: Charlton, 1989) 39.
       4 Microsoft PowerPoint Version 2002 Step by Step, (Redmond, WA: Perspection, 2001) 235.
  5. Book that has been translated:
  5 Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl, trans. M. Moyaart-Doubleday (Toronto: Bantam, 1993) 95.
  6. Article in a collection by several authors, with an editor:
  6 Carmen DaSilva, "Life Insurance as a Tool for Estate Planning," Death and Taxes: Beating One of the Two Certainties in Life, ed. Jerry White (Los Angeles: Warwick, 1998) 57-71.
  7. Article from an encyclopedia with no author stated:
       7 "Malcolm X," Encyclopedia of Social Issues, 1997 ed.
  8. Article from an encyclopedia with one author:
       8 Lawrence A. Presley, "DNA Fingerprinting," World Book Encyclopedia, 2000 ed.
  9. Article from a magazine, journal, or newspaper with no author stated:
  9 "Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.'s Life and Legacy Celebrated across U.S. during National Holiday," Jet 11 Feb. 2002: 4+.
       9 "Tobacco Companies to Anti-Smokers: Butt Out," Maclean's 26 Aug. 2002: 12.
       9 "New Chips Aimed at Wireless Market," Toronto Star 19 Feb. 2002: C5.
  10. Article from a magazine, journal, or newspaper with one or more authors or editors:
       10 Jonathan Alter and Geoffrey Gagnon, "The Future of New York," Newsweek 9 Sept. 2002: 50+.
       10 Chris Wood, "Gold Diggers of 2002," Maclean's 26 Aug. 2002: 36-37.
       10 Tim Gray, et al., "Softwood Lumber: Let's Stop Blaming the U.S.," Globe and Mail [Toronto] 19 Feb. 2002: A19.
  11. Pamphlet, with no author stated:
       11 2001 Chevy Tracker: Chevy Trucks (General Motors of Canada, 2000).
       11 Fosamax (Kirkland,  PQ: Merck, Jan. 2000).
  12. Book, product or software review:
  12 Henry Gordon, review of China! The Grand Tour, CD-ROM by Hopkins Technology, in We Compute Feb. 1998: 15.
  13. Government document:
  13 Canada, Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Gathering Strength: Canada's Aboriginal Action Plan (Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada, 2000) 12-13.
  13 United States, National Council on Disability, Carrying on the Good Fight - Summary Paper from Think Tank 2000 - Advancing the Civil and Human Rights of People with Disabilities from
  Diverse Cultures (Washington: GPO, 2000) 6.
  14. Interview:
       14 Hellmut Longin, President, European Steel Industries, Personal interview, 8 Sept. 2002.
  15. Film or video recording:
       15 Eternal Earth, prod. Rhombus Media, dir. Larry Weinstein, 1987, 16 mm, 28 min. 37 sec.
  16. Audio recording:
       16 Ginger, Solid Ground, Nettwerk, Vancouver, SPRO003, 1994.
  17. Television or radio:
       17 Larry King Live, CNN, Nassau,  Bahamas, 7 Mar. 2002.
       17 Abbey Lincoln Sings Her Career, WBGO, Newark, NJ, 4 Mar. 2002.
  18. Computer software or CD-ROM:
       18 National Parks: The Multimedia Family Guide, CD-ROM, Woodland Hills, CA: Cambrix, 1995.
       18 Norton AntiVirus, CD-ROM, Symantec, 2002.    
       18 QuickTax: Tax Year 2001, CD-ROM, Intuit Canada, 2002.
  19. Internet:
  Note: First date = Web page creation or modification date. Second date = the date you accessed the Web page. If the Web page does not have a modification or creation date, leave it out, but always indicate your access date just before the URL.
  19 Canada, Indian and Northern Affairs, "Aboriginal Peoples Survey: From APS I to APS II." Facts from Stats, Corporate Information Management Directorate, Issue No. 15, Mar. 2000, 8 Oct. 2001 <http://www.inac.gc.ca/nr/nwltr/sts/2000-03_e.html>.
  19 James Henretta, et al., "Richard Allen and African-American Identity," America's History, Spring 1997, 8 Oct. 2001 <http://www.earlyamerica.com/review/spring97/allen.html>.
       19 "Edsitement, 10 May 2002, 12 May 2002 <http://edsitement.neh.gov/history.html?all>.
  20. Reference to Shakespeare:
  (Shakespeare's plays are cited with Roman capitals for the Act, small Roman numerals for the Scene, and Arabic numerals for the Lines).
       20 Hamlet IV, i, 15-18.
  In-text Footnotes or Endnotes are also appropriate in an essay on a single Shakespearean play:
  20 Lear sums up his whole tragedy when he says, "I am a man more sinned against than sinning." (III, ii, 57)
  21. Reference from the Bible, Catechism, or Sacred Texts:
  Example in text:
  An interesting reference was made to the picking of corn on the Sabbath.1
  Example of Footnote citation, long form:
       1 Matthew 12:1-8.
  Example of Footnote citation, short form:
       1 Mt 12:1-8.
  Example in text:
  The Catechism of the Catholic Church states that "Because of its common origin the human race forms a unity, for 'from one ancestor [God] made all nations to inhabit the whole earth.'" 2
  Example of first Footnote or Endnote citation of the above quote taken from Catechism of the Catholic Church, Part I, Section 2, Chapter 1, Article 1, Paragraph 6I, Reference Number: 360, Page 103, would be:
       2 Catechism of the Catholic Church (New York: Doubleday, 1994) 360.
  Subsequent citation of the same quote:
       3 Catechism, 360.
  Citation of a different quote from the same book:
       4 Catechism, 1499.
  22. Citations for a single work throughout essay:
  If the entire essay is about one book, e.g. Carrie only and there are no other sources used, a Footnote or Endnote is needed only for the first quotation as follows:
       Stephen King, Carrie (New York: New American, 1974) 40.
  All subsequent quotations are from this edition.
  After this, it is only necessary to supply the page number of the text:
       Sheriff Otis Doyle testified that Miss Snell told him that "Carrie did it. Carrie did it." (198)
  23. Sources used more than once:
  1. If a source was footnoted earlier, you can use a shortened Footnote or Endnote providing only the author's surname and the reference page number:
       1 King 197.
  2. When two or more books by the same author are used as reference material, or there are sources by two or more authors with the same last name, include the short title or an abbreviated form of the title:
       2 King, Fire-Starter 279.
       2 King, It 13.
  Sometimes for a longer piece of work a bibliography is also required.  Entries should always be listed in alphabetically order according to the author's surname.  The following information is available at http://www.aresearchguide.com/12biblio.html
  1. Book with one author or editor
2. Book with two authors or editors
3. Book with three authors or editors
4. Book with more than three authors or editors
5. Book with compilers and editors
6. Book with no author or editor stated
7. Book with one author, translated by another
8. Work in an anthology, a collection by several authors, with one or more editors and/or compilers
9. Article in an encyclopedia with no author stated

  10. Article in an encyclopedia with an author
11. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated
12. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with one or more authors
13. Article from SIRS (Social Issues Resources Series)
14. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with no author stated
15. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with an author
16. Book review
17. Government publication
18. Cassette Tape Recording
19. CD-ROM
20. Computer service, e.g. BRS, DIALOG, MEAD, etc.
21. Computer software
22. Film, Movie
23. Internet
24. Interview
25. Letter
26. Map or Chart
27. Performance (ballet, concert, musical, opera, play, theatrical performance)
28. Radio
29. Recording - Music CD, LP, magnetic tape
30. Television
31. Videocassette
32. Advertisement
33. Definition from a dictionary

1. Book with one author or editor:
  Barrett, Andrea. Servants of the Map. New York: Norton, 2002.
  2. Book with two authors or editors:
  Bolman, Lee G., and Terrence E. Deal. Leading with Soul: An Uncommon Journey of Spirit. New and Rev. ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001.
  3. Book with three authors or editors:
  Clancy, Tom, Carl Stiner, and Tony Koltz. Shadow Warriors: Inside the Special Forces. New York: Putnam, 2002.
  4. Book with more than three authors or editors:
  You have a choice of listing all the authors or editors in the order as they appear on the title page of the book, or you may use "et al." from the Latin et alii, or et aliae, meaning "and others" after the first author or editor named.  A book written by Ken Blanchard, Sheldon Bowles, Don Carew and Eunice Parisi-Carew, for example, may be listed under the first named author: Blanchard, Kenneth H., et al.
  Blanchard, Kenneth H., et al. High Five! The Magic of Working Together. New York: Harper, 2001.
  Hogan, David J., et al., eds. The Holocaust Chronicle: A History in Words and Pictures. Lincolnwood, IL: Publications International, 2000.
  5. Book with compilers and editors:
  McClay, John B., and Wendy L. Matthews, comps. and eds. Corpus Juris Humorous: A Compilation of Outrageous, Unusual, Infamous and Witty Judicial Opinions from 1256 A.D. to the Present. New   York: Barnes, 1994.
  6. Book with no author or editor stated:
  Maclean's Canada's Century: An Illustrated History of the People and Events that Shaped Our Identity. Toronto: Key Porter, 1999.
  7. Book with one author, translated by another:
  Muller, Melissa. Anne Frank: The Biography. Translated by Rita and Robert Kimber. New York: Metropolitan, 1998.
  8. Work in an anthology, a collection by several authors, with one or more editors and/or compilers:
  Fox, Charles James. "Liberty Is Order, Liberty Is Strength." What Is a Man? 3,000 Years of Wisdom on the Art of Manly Virtue. Ed. Waller R. Newell. New York: Harper, 2001. 306-7.
  9. Article in an encyclopedia with no author stated:
  "Nazi Party." New Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1997 ed.
  10. Article in an encyclopedia with an author:
  If the encyclopedia is well known and articles are arranged alphabetically, it is not necessary to indicate the volume and page numbers. But if the encyclopedia is not well known, you must give full publication information including author, title of article, title of encyclopedia, name of editor or edition, number of volumes in the set, place of publication, publisher and year of publication.
  Kibby, Michael W. "Dyslexia." World Book Encyclopedia. 2000 ed.
  Midge, T. "Powwows." Encyclopedia of North American Indians. Ed. D.L. Birchfield.11 vols. New York: Marshall Cavendish, 1997.
  11. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated:
  "100 Years of Dust and Glory." Popular Mechanics Sept. 2001: 70-75.
  12. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with one or more authors:
  Use "+" for pages that are not consecutive.
  Example: When numbering pages, use "24-25" if page numbers are consecutive. Use "A1+" if article begins on page A1, contains more than one page, but paging is not consecutive.  
  Note also that there is no period after the month. The period in "Mar." is for the abbreviation of March.  If there are 4 or less letters in the month, e.g. May, June, and July, the months are not abbreviated. For instance, if the publication date is June 17, 2002, citation will be 17 June 2002.
  Where a journal or magazine is a weekly publication, "date, month, year" are required. Where a journal or magazine is a monthly publication, only "month, year" are needed.  
  Where a newspaper title does not indicate the location of publication, add the city of publication between square brackets, e.g. National Post [Toronto]. Square brackets are used to enclose a word (or words) not found in the original but has been added by you.
  Barnes, Dan. "'Justice' for Canadian Skaters: IOC Awards Second Gold to Canada's Salé, Pelletier." Ottawa Citizen 16 Feb. 2002: A1+.
  Cave, Andrew. "Microsoft and Sun Settle Java Battle." Daily Telegraph [London] 25 Jan. 2001: 36.
  13. Article from SIRS (Social Issues Resources Series):
  Example from SIRS:
  Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. "Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite." Technology Review Nov./Dec. 1992: 30-40. Reprinted in WORK. (Boca Raton, FL: Social Issues Resource Series, 1992), Article No. 20.
  Example in MLA style:
  Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. "Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite." Technology Review Nov./Dec. 1992: 30-40. Work. Ed. Eleanor Goldstein. Vol. 5. Boca Raton: SIRS, 1992. Art. 20.
  14. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with no author stated:
  Diabetes Care: Blood Glucose Monitoring. Burnaby, BC: LifeScan Canada, 1997.
  15. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with an author:
  Lee, I. Creating Your Own Web Site: A Crash Course for Beginners. Mississauga,  ON: Dufferin-Peel CDSB, Summer Institute, 2001.
  16. Book review:
  May use short forms: Rev. (Review), Ed. (Edition, Editor, or Edited), Comp. (Compiled, Compiler).
  Groskop, Viv. "Chinese Torture - at Five." Rev. of The Binding Chair by Kathryn Harrison. International Express, Canadian ed. 6 June 2000: 37.
  Hoffman, Michael J. "Huck's Ironic Circle." Rev. of The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain. In Modern Critical Interpretations of Mark Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn ed. by Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea, 1986, 31-44.
  17. Government publication:
  Cite government document in the following order if no author is stated: 1) Government, 2) Agency, 3) Title of publication, underlined, 4) Place of publication, 5) Publisher, 6) Date.
  Canada. Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. Gathering Strength: Canada's Aboriginal Action Plan. Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada, 2000.
  United   States. National Council on Disability. Carrying on the Good Fight - Summary Paper from Think Tank 2000 - Advancing the Civil and Human Rights of People with Disabilities from Diverse Cultures. Washington: GPO, 2000.
  Note: GPO = Government Printing Office in Washington, DC which publishes most of the U.S. federal government documents.
  18. Cassette Tape Recording:
  Covey, Stephen R. Living the 7 Habits: Applications and Insights. Cassette tape recording read by author. New York: Simon, Audio Div., 1995. 1 hr. 30 min.
  Ginger. Solid Ground. Cassette tape recording from album Far Out. SPRO003. Vancouver: Nettwerk, 1994. 3 min. 47 sec.
  19. CD-ROM:
  LeBlanc, Susan and Cameron MacKeen. "Racism and the Landfill." Chronicle-Herald 7 Mar. 1992: B1. CD-ROM. SIRS 1993 Ethnic Groups. Vol. 4. Art. 42.
  20. Computer service - e.g. BRS, DIALOG, MEAD, etc.:
  Landler, Mark. "Can U.S. Companies Even Get a Bonjour?" New York Times, Late Ed. - Final Ed., 1. 2 Oct. 1995. DIALOG File 472, item 03072065197653951002.
  21. Computer software:
  ThinkPad ACP Patch for ThinkPad 600, 770, and 770E. IBM Vers. 1.0. IBM, 1998. 3.5" disk.
  22. Film, Movie:
  Short forms may be used, e.g. dir. (directed by), narr. (narrated by), perf. (performers), prod. (produced by), writ. (written by). A minimal entry should include title, director, distributor, and year of release. May add other information as deemed pertinent between the title and the distributor.
  Hannibal. Dir. Ridley Scott. Prod. Dino De Laurentiis, Martha De Laurentiis, and Ridley Scott. Screenplay David Mamet and Steven Zaillian. Music Hans Zimmer. Perf. Anthony Hopkins and Julianne Moore. MGM and Universal, 2000.
  Titanic. Dir., writ., prod., ed. James Cameron. Prod. Jon Landau. Twentieth Century Fox and Paramount, 1997.
  23. Internet:
  Basic components:
  1) Author. 2) "Title of Article, Web page or site" in quotation marks. 3) Title of Magazine, Journal, Newspaper, Newsletter, Book, Encyclopedia, or Project, underlined. 4) Editor of Project. 5) Indicate type of material, e.g. advertisement, cartoon, clipart, electronic card, interview, map, online posting, photograph, working paper, etc. if not obvious. 6) Date of article, of Web page or site creation, revision, posting, last update, or date last modified. 7) Group, association, name of forum, sponsor responsible for Web page or Web site. 8) Access date (the date you accessed the Web page or site). 9) An exception is made in referencing a personal e-mail message where an individual's e-mail address is omitted for privacy reasons.
  Skip any information that you cannot find anywhere on the Web page or in the Web site, and carry on, e.g. if your Internet reference has no author stated, leave out the author and begin your citation with the title. Always put your access date just before the URL which is placed between "less than" and "greater than" signs at the end of the citation. Generally, a minimum of three items are required for an Internet citation: Title, Access Date, and URL.
  If the URL is too long for a line, divide the URL where it creates the least ambiguity and confusion, e.g. do not divide a domain name and end with a period such as geocities. Do not divide a term in the URL that is made up of combined words e.g. SchoolHouseRock. Never add a hyphen at the end of the line to indicate syllabical word division unless the hyphen is actually found in the original URL. Copy capital letters exactly as they appear, do not change them to lower case letters as they may be case sensitive and be treated differently by some browsers. Remember that the purpose of indicating the URL is for readers to be able to access the Web page. Accuracy and clarity are essential.
  Internet citation for an advertisement:
  "What is Dry Eye?" TheraTears. Advertisement. 2001. 8 Sept. 2002
  Internet citation for an article from an online encyclopedia:
  Duiker, William J. "Ho Chi Minh." Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2000. 1997-2000. Microsoft Corporation. 26 Sept. 2001 <http://encarta.msn.com>.
  Internet citation for an article from an online magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated:
  "Teenager Loses Bullying Claim." BBC News Online: Education. 8 Nov. 2000. 12 Feb. 2001 <http://news.bbc.co.uk/low/english/education/newsid_1013000/1013216.stm>.
  Internet citation for an article from an online database, magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with one or more authors stated:
  English, John. "Sir Robert Laird Borden." World Book Encyclopedia. 1 Jan. 2002. bigchalk Canada Library. 18 Apr. 2002
  Internet citation for a work translated and edited by another:
  Augustine, Saint, Bishop of Hippo. Confessions & Enchiridion. Trans. and ed. Albert C. Outler. 1955. Dallas,  TX: Southern Methodist U. 6 Mar. 2002
  Internet citation for an e-mail (email) from an individual, a listserve, an organization, or citation for an article forwarded from an online database by e-mail:
  Barr, Susan I. "The Creatine Quandry." Bicycling Nov. 1998.  EBSCOhost Mailer. E-mail to E. Interior. 11 May 2000.
  Thorsen, Steffen. "Re: Link to World Clock." E-mail to I. Lee. 13 Mar. 2002.
  Internet citation for an online government publication:
  United   States. National Archives and Records Administration. The Bill of Rights. 29 Jan. 1998. 8 Mar. 2002 <http://www.nara.gov/exhall/charters/billrights/billmain.html>.
  Internet citation for an online posting:
  Kostecki, Dennis. "Environment and Myth." Online posting. 19 May 2000. EarthSystems.org EcoTalk. 12 Aug. 2000 <http://www.earthsystems.org/list/ecotalk/0573.html>.
  Internet citation for an online project, an information database, a personal or professional Web site:
  Lee, I. "Chapter 12: How to Write a Bibliography - Examples in MLA Style." A Research Guide for Students. 26 Nov. 2001. 27 Nov. 2001 <http://www.aresearchguide.com/12biblio1.html>.
  The MAD Scientist Network. 1995-2001 or 30 Feb. 1906. Washington U School of Medicine. 26 Sept. 2001. <http://www.madsci.org>.
  Wurmser, Meyrav, and Yotam Feldner. "Is Israel Negotiating with the Hamas?" Inquiry and Analysis No. 16. 23 Mar. 1999. The Middle East  Media and Research Institute. 12 Feb. 2001
  Internet citation for a cartoon, chart, clipart, map, painting, photo, sculpture, sound clip, etc.:
  "Islamic State of Afghanistan: Political Map." Map. Atlapedia Online. 1993-2001.14 Oct. 2001 <http://www.atlapedia.com/online/maps/political/Afghan_etc.htm>.
  "Woodhull, Victoria C." American History 102 Photo Gallery. 1997. State Historical Society of Wisconsin. 2 Sept. 2001 <http://us.history.wisc.edu/hist102/photos/html/1023.html>.
  Internet citation of a software download:
  Note: It is not absolutely essential to include the file size, but the knowledge is helpful.
  RAMeSize. Vers. 1.04. 15K. 24 Sept. 2000. Blue Dice Software. 12 Nov. 2000
  24. Interview:
  Longin, Helmut. President.  Industry Union of Austria. Vice-President. Association of Austrian Industrialists. Telephone interview. 25 June 2002.
  25. Letter:
  Published letter in a collection.
  Twain, Mark. "Banned in Concord. Letter to Charles L. Webster." 18 Mar. 1885. Letter 850318 of Mark Twain. Ed. Jim Zwick. 1995-2001. 27 Nov. 2001
  A letter you received from John Smith.
  Smith, John. Letter to the author. 27 Nov. 2001.
  26. Map or Chart:
  Treat citation as if it is a book with no author stated. Indicate if the citation is for a chart or a map.
  2001 Andex Chart for Canadian Investors. Chart. Windsor, ON: Andex Associates Inc., 2001.
  27. Performance: (ballet, concert, musical, opera, play, theatrical performance)
  The Hobbit. By J.R.R. Tolkien. Dir. Kim Selody. Perf. Herbie Barnes, Michael Simpson, and Chris Heyerdahl. Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON. 20 Apr. 2002.
  28. Radio:
  Basic Black. Host. Arthur Black. Exec. Prod. Chris Straw. CBC, Vancouver. 8 Feb. 1996.
  29. Recording - Music CD, LP, magnetic tape:
  Basic components:
  Name of author, composer, singer, or editor. Title of song (in quotation marks). Title of recording (underlined). Publication medium (LP, CD, magnetic tape, etc.). Edition, release, or version. Place of publication: Publisher, Date of publication. If citing from Internet, see Item 23 above.
  Backstreet Boys. Larger than Life. Millennium. CD. Exclusive Management by The Firm, Los Angeles, CA. Mastered by Tom Coyne, Sterling Sound, NYC. Zomba, 1999.
  30. Television:
  Law and Order. Prod. Wolf Film in assoc. with Universal Television. NBC Television Network. WHEC, Rochester, NY. 25 Feb. 1998.
  31. Videocassette:
  Jane Austen's Emma. Videocassette. Meridian Broadcasting. New   York: New Video Group, 1996. Color. 107 min.
  32. Advertisement:
  Put in square brackets [ ] important information you have added that is not found in the source cited. To cite an advertisement found on the Internet, see Item 23 above.
  "Now the Left Hand Knows What the Right Hands Are Doing." Microsoft. Advertisement. eWeek. 17 June 2002: 24-25.
  33. Definition from a dictionary:
  When citing a definition from a dictionary, add the abbreviation Def. after the word. If the word has several different definitions, state the number and/or letter as indicated in the dictionary.
  "Mug." Def. 2. The New Lexicon Webster's Encyclopedic Dictionary of the English Language. Canadian ed. 1988.
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